Part XV of the favorites
Svanidze: he is a former head of the KGB, he informed, he can not understand how on the edge of the abyss country faces.Mlechin: one of his subordinates, Putin told me, Andropov was the man with the cat associated hope for the best. He seemed able to make a difference. It turned out - can only cosmetic measures. None of hope was not realized. Overexposed it on the sidelines, he was not able to and was not ready for the new, it was a lost year.Kurginyan: I do not know what was in the double bottom, it was a very complex, subtle, strong, deep man, I do not know what he wanted, but either history or conspiracy myths ...
What and who ensured the arrival of Andropov to power?Mlechin: In January 1982, died Suslov. The patient needs to Brezhnev was the one who will replace him. There were two figures: the head of the Secretariat, Andropov and Chernenko. Brezhnev, Andropov said, "You replace me Suslov." Why? Andropov was totally committed to it, was not involved in any hardware clans, fully oriented to Brezhnev. Recent years ruled Brezhnev, Andropov, Ustinov, Suslov. Suslov was already aged. Who is the General Secretary of the Politburo instead? Andropov, the patient Kirilenko. Later Andropov displays Kirilenko from the BOP.
Kurginyan: Brezhnev, Andropov moved since the removal of Khrushchev, in which an elite group relied Andropov, the talk is of the highest quality ... Igor Sinitsyn writes that Andropov Kuusinen pulled from the Leningrad case. Georgy Arbatov wrote that Kuusinen embodied tradition of the labor movement, a man of high culture, wrote poetry, music, literature, left in charge of the Social Democracy of the world.Provides memory Sevenfold: put in my place Andropov, of all secretaries of the Central Committee, I knew too much about Brezhnev, Andropov - on the contrary. Kupriyanov writes about firing practice, diligence Andrpova the Leningrad case.Nikolai Ryzhkov: crackdown, double bottom - it has nothing to do with Andropov, I am at this time a member of the Central Committee, in 1982, was elected secretary for economics. Kirilenko have been insanity, but no one could remove up to a plenum. Why did Andropov? Summary: its time, the time of new seedlings. The SDS only made the way Gorbachev, Ryzhkov, based on the weight - the elderly, this was done deliberately. By the nature, authority Ustinov above. But the same Brezhnev said: "We have policies, not the military." From that elite became general secretary Andre deserved history correctly ordered.
Svanidze: Time Andropov - physically, as other senile?Ryzhkov: The main reason - intellectual, inner content, compared to those who were standing nearby.Mlechin: You were in Sverdlovsk, Yeltsin left you with the empty stands and without notes, human words expressed sadness about the human care Andropov. But Andropov did not belong to any group, or a clan that was pushing it?Ryzhkov is a decent man, he belonged to the clans, but the fact that Brezhnev led, that it is a merit only Brezhnev? ..Mlechin: Ryzhkov quotes: "I do not know of any functionary, which would stay in power not korezhit soul ..."Ryzhkov: It was not purely a party apparatchik, yes Head. department of social services. countries that were in Hungary, also deposited in his cranium.
What actions of the Andropov promoted his ascent?Kurginyan: I think that Andropov was a very decent man. What clan name? Every person coming to power, the political masters.Kevorkov: Andropov considered appointment as head of the KGB as temporary setback and wanted as much as possible to use it for later.Quote Boldin assistant Andropov became known in advance about the collusion team Chernenko, so supporters Chernenko retreated.Kazimirov: you can not judge about Ivan the Terrible from the point of view of human rights covenants. There was a man on the scale equal to him. Andropov spoke with lows like ambassadors, the plebs, I wrote the resolution, asked: "Your suggestions?"
Svanidze: behavior Andropov in Hungary - is contributed to the fact that the party leadership has paid attention to him.Kazin: he reported about the rise of the event in time, the events will be decided in the streets after the event - a heart attack.Mlechin: it was anti-Stalinist protest after 20 CongressKazin: anti-Soviet.Mlechin: anti-Stalinist, tyrant Matyas Rakosi, came to the direct actions of the working class, studednchestva, fights with a lot of victims. Andropov took from Budapest luggage - even the slightest deviation from the rules and dogmas up to the student clubs and dangerous - the collapse of the system.Kazin: do not believe in something so, what it is not, his wife became ill person, she saw people were hanged in the streets ...Mlechin: Hungarians avenged employees GB!
Mlechin gives voice to Mark Urnov: if I lived my life within the Politburo, the idea of the Brezhnev period - marazmiruyuschee Politburo, the country is spreading, very short bench, Andropov - strong-willed, bright, can, when it begins to loose, to do something, not tied to the MIC, or to the Foreign Ministry, he drives around cohort voluntary liberals, Bovin, etc., do not think the party narrowly, but Andropov appointed bureaucratic people, he was appointed at a time when the system is reeling - from the insanity of the planned economy.Nikita Petrov, he headed the KGB, what Bovin - not determined, the repressive role of the KGB, preventive treatment, suppression of all, he broke the Soviet Constitution, everyone knew that such a person will do.
Svanidze: he was "injured" in Hungary, and from there to install it for tightening the screws, but without the blood?Mark Urnov - the situation where the uprising, people are beginning to disassemble the bridge hands, break the prison where political prisoners are sitting, what a rage osatanevshy much accumulated anger of the people, pay reparations for Hungary Horthy, and Andropov, a true son of his party, he could not sacrifice communist principlesKurginyan: Andropov - the identity of an incredibly complex and can not be discussed with the tools with which people discuss simple (!'s Where the soul Kurginyan crowed! BI) put all the leaders of the Republic of Karelia, except Andropov Kuusinen saved, it writes Mlechin, but saved - not written.
Andropov-2Saver, Andropov words: "There are difficulties, making I do not know." A form of punishment - the content in a psychiatric hospital. All transformations - the fight against corruption and strengthening discipline.
Question: what line in the ideology of political economy held Andropov?Gevork Kurginyan gives the word ...: Andropov was convinced that a new society can only come through a tough regime, as it did in the history of Ataturk ... Solzhenitsyn same mistakes that Pasternak ...Boris Mezhuyev: it was building relationships with intellectuals ...Svanidze: Andropov good to intellectuals?Mezhuev: it was a flexible policy, Andropov did not want to second ideologue ...Kurginyan: he knew what he was doing!Svanidze: Vishnevskaya, Rostropovich, Aksenov, Glazunov ... The party that rejected the ideological dissent, dead ...Kurginyan: Andropov wanted to push the KGB and the party, it's his project, this project is a continuation of a long ...
Mlechin: I like meeting UFO ... in 70 years as the intelligentsia belonged to Andropov? Report of the 5th of the political anti-ideological sabotage the KGB - the boast - managed to not let the guy in the Literary Institute, tracked for those traveling abroad ...Mezhuev: when Andropov was a film "Stop the Train", where good faith opposed indiscriminate mouthing bureaucracy from the intellectuals ...Mlechin: those who were expelled from their jobs, were not allowed to do ... catch truants, the whole history of Andropov - the history of suppressing dissent. The method of tightening the screws: remove stale partner unit and replace it with the KGB.Mlechin urn gives the word: the people of the 2nd order - in a mental hospital, people of rank 1 - let go. This is reminiscent of Lenin's philosophical ships: not to give opportunities to people supervliyatelnym. Not bloody, but repressive figure.
Kurginyan Shakhnazarov gives the word: Andropov - as a precursor, the first steps toward reform, he pointed to the hump as his successor.Markus Wolf: Andropov had an understanding of the fact that it is necessary that a serious change.Mark Urnov: Andropov knew how terrible the situation in the country, but how to help? He was afraid to move forward quickly ... how to change the vertical unit to the matrix ... it turned to blood and decay. Ideology would be great-with an element of socialism: the hostile world around classic authoritarian, maybe a totalitarian regime.Mlechin quoted Reagan talked with the ambassador to Russia, he said that the economy is in stagnation, a cynical attitude toward communism, the Soviet government, the economy is very bad, if we deprive them credit, they will die of hunger.Mlechin problem with rockets ... (? BI) ... quoted Yuri Nagibin "Diary": did not have any kind of hearing the train coming down the slope can not be returned to the rails, the power of repression - this thing broken ... Andropov's reluctance to change something in international relations, the lack of understanding, it makes the situation worseSvanidze: Andropov got a terrible time, boycotting the Olympics, Afghanistan, if he could actually improve relations with the U.S.?Mlechin: had the opportunity to ... the Cold War was due to hardened rules Andropov, he captured the ideologist of the MIC schemes ... to the end ruined the country's gold reserves steadily spent grain, ideological blinders prevailed ...
Kurginyan: How do you assess the journey of 80 g, Najibullah, a foreign policy outcome?- There is no sense, no need to build in Afghanistan sotsitsalizm ...- A foreign policy towards Germany?- Come Kohl and Genscher yourself ...Kurginyan asks Valentin Aleksandrov on Andropov's achievements in foreign policy, I would like to connect the internal and external policies. As a person - born apparatchik, courtier, becoming king, he knew the precariousness of their position in the product and in matters large and small maneuvered. Note on the southern theme, he sent it to the Central Committee - of the trip participants. Is meeting calling Kirilenko, Andropov said standing up on hinged, so that everyone can hear. Kirilenko: "I've been drinking tea while reading your note. Sorry ... but the hell you ride there? Andropov: "But is it" the hell "argument?" Kirilenko: "Actually, you're right ..."
Svanidze quoted someone who asked Andropov: how can we engage in a confrontation with the West? - Andropov: "You do not know what a bad situation with the economy in the West, as they are weak ..."Valentin Alexandrov: Andropov in the economy is not strong, it postpones itsSvanidze: we lost the Cold War (as the Americans are to blame for the collapse of the Soviet Union or the system was a nightmare? BI).Alexandrov: chief Andropov thought relations with social services. countries.Svanidze: millions of dollars in the social. the country?Alexandrov: it was normal, rendering - only with Cuba ...Mlechin: Andropov in private lamented that divert funds, they say, that we have forgotten in Angola, Mozambique, he realized one was worth billions of Africa ...Alexandrov: Oleg Bogomolov note on Afghani note, it was given no Andropov, to me, there was no conviction, it was the alignment. Ie People saw him as a good intention ...Mlechin: on the outside path Andropov did nothing.
CommentMlechintsy say Andropov ruined relations with the intelligentsia. Quarreled with Glazunov, sent Rostropovich, Vishnevskaya, Solzhenitsyn. And it was scary! A Kurginyan added fuel to the fire, saying that it was an ambitious project, with no end yet in sight. Because Andropov seemingly moved Brezhnev, but actually Kuusinen, a very intelligent and influential, who oversaw the leftist organizations in the world.They say that Andropov did not want to endure a second near the ideologue. In this case was ideological blinders and built socialism in Afghanistan. That with him to the end of the MIC has ruined the country, although Andropov knew she was on the brink of the abyss. Understand - but at the same time, not meaning a damn thing in the economy! Because of this, we lost the Cold War. At the same time, he assured that the great potential of the USSR.Over its long journey Secretary General Yuri Andropov, according Mlechin, managed absolutely nothing to do in foreign policy.They said that Andropov began the practice of sending people to the psychiatric hospital of those who rank 2. People of rank 1, which had a huge impact, he sent as Lenin sent philosophers who had a huge impact. That Andropov wanted to tighten the nuts and set the example of Ataturk's authoritarian or even totalitarian. True, he got a terrible situation - boycott Olympics! He spat, they say, the West economically weak ... I do not Ryuha in the economy. Paid millions of dollars to the cannibals and repented: the hell we Mozambique to Angola. And always kept the Cold War, as was in captivity hardened ideological norms (even Svanidze surprised - that had to be done - what).
About asylums. As far as I remember, put there dissenters (stupid word, anyway, that new thinking - there is no such thinking and there is none), started under Brezhnev. Continued under the liberal Gorbachev. Thus, in the Permian psychiatric hospital on the street. Revolution, '56 commercials in 1989 brought some of the Vladimir prison sheet.Andropov when I met with the lawyer Igor Andrianov. Tatar. He had a line: how to go to work, he immediately started digging under the heads. Broke his fate, reviled him from the mine to the Sakhalin Molkauts in Moldova, from the miner to the local councils. From the mine to the dirt on the heads he was getting to Moscow secretly pursued his KGB-Schnick. In the Perm region served Kishert poultry farm, saw the director came to the factory to povorovat jeep, the watchman wanted to prevent, and was hit by a jeep. Andrianov took compromising the KGB, and then said, "Yes, we know."With Igor, we had a long talk about the "system." He told me a lot to tell. Partly thanks to him I was "informal." Rifle ammo that gave me Igor, I have kept in a laboratory radio-uni, and his wife kept the pistol in a box under the sugar. Someone skral cartridges, I was called in for questioning - and I had nothing! And Igor too.When the head. Department of Physical Education Kodintsev led students kayak ride, tourists dispatched me to the Regional Committee of the CPSU. Complain. Canoes returned, and I again had nothing. I do whatever I wanted. In the dining room dispensary publicly had called a high-ranking CCP Party Secretary riffraff - and no one even think to put me in the loony bin! (Notably, it was the person, one criminal case he brought to the end, despite the RC). But Igor - could, as He then had another vorticity. Later he would become an anti-Semite, and now considers himself a Jew. Not that the Orthodox, not Indian. But even then it was not touched.But with liberal Gorbachev began to sponsor me so that was fit to handle yourself to a psychiatrist. I worked on his beloved profession under Andropov, Gorbachev when I was deprived of. It is not allowed to work in the specialty under Yeltsin. Even at the plant did not take. Away from the team. For young professionals have 3 years, but under Andropov, a 4-5-year work in the University, I have no intention to dismiss. Conversely, a graduate student did not want to let go. Although the chief lab I had a very serious friction.
As for influential intellectuals. Our "humanities" have a very strange idea of the intelligentsia. For example, in the film "Garage" PhD works junior th. It just does not happen. And in general, the whole rabble Ryazanovskaya Tusneem reminds traders, not the institute. In general, I have never seen a movie where nauchnikov would be adequately represented even from afar. Even in the "I'm going to storm" and "9 Days of One Year" severe overexposure. Every time you want to spit. Very well shown in the Institute "Monday begins on Saturday", and adaptation - rubbish. Glazunov - mediocre picture. We MSU graduate students went to an exhibition at the Manezh, apparently, in 1986. No impression. My friends, too, shrugged their shoulders. While standing in line for tickets, I accidentally turned around, saw the man and said, "Well, face!" It turned out that it was Glazunov. It was said that he brought his wife, she jumped out the window.Rostropovich - conceited smug guy. Sugars as head just like the rest of the throat talents. Nothing in his head but dies of "civil society", "freedom of speech" and so did not provide. When I was back in 1983, wrote essay to graduate school, I was warned that I do not refer to Sakharov, nor Landau. As I heard it, just insert a link to both. And nobody to say.In Aksenova - sweet little thing, "Zatovarennaya bochkotara." And so - mediocrity. So, how to talk seriously about its impact if it's just packed with propaganda cliches, for example, said that the Red Army defeated solely because of lend-lease, as if she came to Berlin, he said, that, in sandals or something.Level Solzhenitsyn as a writer - is low. His work is meticulously studied in the "Soviet" time. Nothing new, he said in his books. The whole country knew about the concentration camps. All listened Vysotsky all read Dyakova "The Tale of the experience." Gorbatov "Years and war" and another similar abyss of Soviet books.