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суббота, 11 июля 2015 г.

As Russia is falling apart?

Inozemtsev. Accidents and kickbacks how Russia is falling apartApprox. Dzvony site. Offered below article is no different, no particular depth or originality of the analysis, but it does contain some useful economic texture that shows the collapse of the economic trends of the country. - Ed.Negligence and theft now enter the most critical sectors of the Russian economy, where they are fraught with huge risks, - aviation, energy and roads. How will we survive in such conditions?
It is believed that the Russian economy is largely a parasite on the Soviet legacy, and over time, this potential will be exhausted. However, it should be noted that the new facilities are often no better than the former, and on improving the quality of infrastructure construction, nobody thinks. There is, on the one hand, because of the desire of officials and businessmen close to them to increase their own income (kickbacks grown in recent years at times), and on the other hand, because of the mass of brokers and agents are not responsible for the result. Examples of this mass, but in recent years it is the "downward slide" covers all the more dangerous industry.


Roads
Normally, when a start talking about what in Russia is bad, remember the roads. We will not deal with the cost of the works produced in Russia, we note only that in most European countries, the average life of the pavement is 10-15 years for local roads and more than 20 years - for expressways. This allows for a comparable level of development with Russia Turkey (planned for 15 years to expand the network of motorways in 4.5 times) spent annually on repair of existing roads in 9.5 times less than the construction of new ones. In Russia, for the repair of the existing road network spent two and a half times more than for new construction. The roads we "do not last long."
And it is clear why. Almost 18% of the construction costs to date been spent on repairs finally donated in 1999 by the Moscow Ring Road. Up to 10% of the cost of construction required only in the first year of maintenance and debugging runs, hastily built in 2011-2012 between the city and the airport of Vladivostok, 40 km at a cost of 29 billion rubles. Completely destroyed in one or two years the road to the Olympic shooting range in Khanty-Mansiysk, in need of repair highway between Moscow and the same Skolkovo (5-kilometer-long section of which cost in 2011 of 6 billion rubles.).
While the corruption component in road construction reaches 70%, the penalty for "failure to fulfill the requirements to ensure transport safety, is not related to the loss of life," is up to 80 thousand. Rub. and motivate to improve the quality may not. The recent disaster in Sochi once again showed how much it costs the lack of drainage facilities along the roads and railways.
The reasons for going on a few, but they are all reducible to the two groups. On the one hand, the Russian road construction standards have lagged behind Europe by 20-40 years. The country does not apply in the same dominant German coating technology of the roadway slabs prestressed concrete instead of asphalt, outdated rules on the edges, a chipper and drainage, etc. On the other hand, the industry is almost no competition: the market is dominated by "SGM" and "Mostotrest", "Stroygazconsulting", "Transinzhiniring" and a number of other well-known companies; regional contracts performed almost exclusively by companies, close to the local leaders.Terrible logistics leads to the fact that the cost of transport we make up to 20% of GDP in the US figure of 8.2%. About half of the victims on the road (15-17 thousand. Lives a year) can also be attributed to the terrible quality of road surface - and it continues to decline, while the number of deficiencies - to grow.
Aviation and Space
A series of catastrophes Russian rockets in 2014-2015 once again drew attention to the space sector - especially the causes of accidents proved to be essentially repeated. The authorities have started talking almost about sabotage and sabotage - but it is unlikely this is the case. The largest domestic production centers (the same Khrunichev. Khrunichev) do not provide a complete production cycle. More than half the components come from subcontractors - and, again, through a chain of intermediaries. Unfortunate bearings which repeatedly destroyed in the third-stage engine "Proton" - where are they? So far we have not heard the answer to this question, but we know that the monopolization in the production of bearings now exceeds 90%, and more than half of them used in the production of components imported from China.
The same applies to all elements of the space industry today in the components of our satellite equipment and components of the Russian production is about 30% - but because of them happens to 95% of breakdowns and failures. Of the 48 satellites of the GLONASS system, launched in 2004, six were lost at the start, and 18 are already out of order. The oldest existing American GPS devices working in orbit since 1993, and the oldest of Russian - from 2006. Now we focus on import substitution - so what? No gospriemka not stop shaft low-quality products and outright counterfeit.
Or take the aircraft. Only in 2014 in Russia crashed 22 aircraft. Traditionally, the Commission referred them to the cause of "human factor". But hardly all speaks only to them - for example, in the last 12 months, the aircraft SSJ-100 of "Aeroflot" returned several times in the departure airports with passengers, including due to the destruction of the central body of the nozzle unit of the engine. And nothing - the company operates in extreme loss, to deal with more than 150 billion debt, and the aircraft will fly somehow. How are we repair services, also known: according to official figures Rosaviation at least 6% of installed components do not meet the safety requirements, and up to 10% - are second-hand.
Energetics
In this area, the situation, in my opinion, the most disturbing. I will not even remember how many die in Russian coal miners (2000-2010 mortality per 1 ton of fuel produced in Russia is 3.4 times higher than in the US and 9.7 times - than in the EU). Suffice it to mention the problem of repair and maintenance of power units in power plants. Now, more than 80% of the power generated by hydroelectric and thermal power station on the turbines built before 1980.
Repairs are carried out either formally or "collusion": everyone remembers that just five months after one of them was an accident at the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station in August 2009, which killed 75 people. This examination recorded the outrageous deviation parameters of the equipment is almost constant during this period (it is not surprising that the company repaired the station, whose founders were representatives of the station).
Any questions to "Rosatom". Since 2000, the country was put into operation five nuclear reactors are under construction and 10 more; there are contracts for the construction of stations in Belarus, Hungary and India. But not all goes smoothly, even in 2011 at the Leningrad NPP-2 collapsed 12-meter-high wall bearing housing being built unit. Not having received in due time control over St. Petersburg "Izhorskiye plants", "Rosatom" switched power equipment orders to "Petrozavodskmash" does not have many critical technologies. Not agreeing with Chekhov's "Energomash" - one of its traditional suppliers, he stopped to buy his products. But while her delivery (for example, at the Kola NPP), according to the documents do not stop. What exactly is installed at these sites? And who controls the medium through which purchases are "Rosatom"?
Another issue - the network. Their wear reaches the national average of 70%, and in some regions it is much higher. In the Kaliningrad region, for example, where it is planned to build a new nuclear power plant, the electricity from it is simply impossible to take in the power supply system.
Here, as elsewhere, the officials have an answer: life extension. This versatile tool allows you to work in the Russian networks, built in the Kaliningrad region of the same, even when Reich, flying bombers released soon after the exposure of the cult of personality, and use of transport rolling-1970s.
As is now clear, Russia failed in 2008 declared technological modernization. In the context of western technology sanctions, the low rate of the ruble and the limited credit resources naive to hope that now the renewal of fixed assets will go fast. But in such a situation wasps Aubin is important to avoid the creation of artificial problems, which can disrupt the development of entire industries.Vladislav Inozemtsev, PhD, director of the Center for Post-Industrial StudiesVladislav InozemtsevSource: za-nauku.ru  


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