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пятница, 29 апреля 2016 г.

Russia remains without pensions

Finance Ministry proposes to secretly throw off the state social obligationsAndrey Polunin
The Ministry of Finance submitted to the Cabinet a detailed plan for pension reform. This is reported by "Vedomosti". Here are the key points of this plan:- To transfer the collection of insurance premiums Tax Service, and combine this with the reform of the tariff policy - set a single social insurance tariff, plus a charge it with the entire salary (currently contributions to the Pension Fund are taken from the salary up to a certain limit);- To raise the retirement age to 65 for both men and women - in increments of 6-12 months a year;- Refuse to pay pensions - or at least part of its fixed - working pensioners, as such a practice existed in the Soviet period, and does not contradict the conventions of the International Labour Organization;- Not to pay early pensions to those who are entitled to them because of the work in hazardous industries, but continues to work at the same factories (now more than half of "dosrochnikov");

- Dosrochnikam-public sector - educational, medical, creative workers - gradually increase required for the establishment of early retirement experience, to match the normal retirement age;- Since 2019 to abolish the mandatory funded component, and convert it from the compulsory pension insurance system in kvazidobrovolnoe, while the introduction of incentives for voluntary savings.On the last point is worth looking separately.Central Bank and the Finance Ministry proposes to withdraw savings contributions of mandatory pension insurance, leaving 22% rate of pension contributions to the solidarity system. Funded in part proposed to rename the "individual retirement capital." It will include all the previously accumulated, and citizens will have the ownership of their pension savings, as well as the opportunity to spend their retirement age. Savings of citizens in the NPF transferred to the pension assets automatically, and the accumulation of "silent types" are converted into scores of insurance part of pensions if the two years since the start of the new reform "undecideds" not translated accumulation in the NPF.Yuri Boldyrev about the conditions for a genuine re-industrializationCumulative contributions to the citizen will pay with their own salaries, their size - from 0 to 6% - can be adjusted over a lifetime. This 6 rubles fee (each $ 100 of salary) will increase to 7.32 rubles due to co-financing of the state.What are the chances that the Ministry of Finance and the Central Bank of the reform will be implemented in its current form, when to start a radical restructuring of the pension system?- The reform of the pension system is inevitable, because in Russia is increasing life expectancy and changing the demographic balance of the population - work becomes smaller, - said director of the Institute of Political Studies Sergei Markov. - As it is inevitable, in my view, and a slight increase in the retirement age - for the same basic reasons. But it is unlikely the current proposals are the Ministry of Finance as final, or even penultimate. In addition, it is highly unlikely that the key decisions on the reform will be taken before the presidential election in 2018.I think that the main parameters of the pension reform has not yet been developed, and for purely political reasons, the authorities will not be able to accept these settings behind the scenes, almost secretly. From this point of view, the current proposal the Ministry of Finance should be viewed only as a ministry position. The adoption of the final version of the pension reform will be preceded by a long discussion, which will certainly block the social participation of the government, parliamentarians, trade unions and the Public Chamber.There is an important point: such a discussion can not start immediately. On the eve of the election no one will do it because of the political risks."SP": - What are the points of the pension reform Government can implement without delay?- I think now can be implemented only those blocks reforms that from the political point of view, are not sensitive. In particular, the concentration of the collection of insurance premiums to the Tax Office.If, however, will increase the retirement age - only to certain categories of pensioners, and very carefully, mainly on the principles of voluntariness.But that will not be exact - so it is reducing payments to working pensioners. That prospect has already caused serious discontent in the society, and if time does not stop, then this dissatisfaction can take sharp political forms. In short, I can not imagine that the government is now going down this path."SP": - Does this mean that the Cabinet will delay reform on the back burner?- No. I think the government will try to push for reform at every opportunity. The trouble is that the socio-economic unit of our cabinet has always shown a high degree of social irresponsibility. In my opinion, this block, including through pension reform, trying to shift the responsibility for their actions and the "United Russia" and personally to President Vladimir Putin.- Most likely, the government will start the pension reform immediately after the elections to the State Duma this autumn, - says Doctor of Economics, professor of the Academy of Labor and Social Affairs Andrei Gudkov. - In fact, the reform of transfer errors that have been committed to social unit of government, on the shoulders of the population. And thus worsen its welfare.In terms of fiscal policy, reform is needed. Due to a sharp decline in social insurance tariff rates and reduction of base rate by withdrawing from under him part of the salary (in 1990, I recall, the rate stood at 38.5% and is levied on all salaries), the Pension Fund deficit arises which is necessary to close the transfers from the budget.This is true, but that the Liberals offer of the Ministry of Finance? As an effective anti-crisis measure they consider the transfer of the functions of collecting insurance premiums from the social fund in the Federal Tax Service. In practice, it threatens usurpation of authority Ministry of Finance Ministry of Labour and the Ministry of Health in the field of social protection.In my opinion, nothing good, this scenario does not promise. FTS collected social insurance contributions will then be sent to the Federal Treasury. From there, the Ministry of Finance will be able to easily send them to their "patching" the budget hole is the social sector. Do we need such redistribution of our citizens - a rhetorical question.International practice, and our past experience proves that contribute to economic recovery measures to stimulate consumer and investment demand, including at the expense of the budget and finance vznosovogo social system. But socio-economic bloc of the government of this point of view is not shared. So I do not rule out that the Finance Ministry's proposal, in the case of appropriate pressure, will be taken following the State Duma.I think one can hold on this development: in the case of the pension reform will inevitably run the risk of failure, and to power it carries political risks. Imagine what would happen if six months before the presidential elections, suddenly have interruptions in payments of operational benefits: sickness, benefits childcare. Or any delays in pension payments in the regions. All this, of course, an extremely negative impact on the situation on the eve of electoral events. That is why the reform of the pension system will be implemented in stages and a long time ...- The main idea of ​​the Ministry of Finance - the elimination of the cumulative part of the pension, and its transformation from a mandatory component in the voluntary - said doctor of economic sciences, professor, chief researcher at the Institute of Economics Nikita Krichevsky. - It is, I note, wanted to do for a long time. Back in 2008 the then Minister of Health and Social Development Mikhail Zurabov arrived in the State Duma with a proposal to eliminate the accumulative part, but deputies did not support.Now the situation has changed. First, officials have come up with a mechanism, how to spend the "elimination". Second, the society is already so accustomed to, which funded part of a pension is not as such that dutifully watching the manipulations of the Cabinet.Previously, people had hopes that with the help of funded pension they will be able to provide a comfortable old age - these hopes vanished. Then they were told that the Russian economy requires "long" money, but soon it turned out that under the current legislation cumulative contributions actually can not be used for investment. Now offered on previous commitments funded pension drag to the Pension Fund, and citizens who want to accumulate for retirement, offer to do it yourself.The State Duma will ask Medvedev, the government is struggling with povertyI have a version that explains what is happening. In my opinion, from the beginning of the accumulative pension system was introduced for very specific goal - to raise money to pay off the debt to the Paris Club. Recall that in August 2006, Russia has returned ahead of schedule all the debts of the Soviet Union club of 17 countries-creditors in the amount of 21.6 billion dollars.No evidence of this version does not. But it explains why the Russian leadership never really developed a storage component. The law, which established the rules for investing pension savings, allowed, in fact, only invest the money in government securities of the Russian Federation and the regions of Russia, but not in real investment projects.But now comes the reckoning: in 2022 published the first retired citizen who is entitled to payment of the cumulative part of the pension. Therefore, the government hastens to shift responsibility for these payments to the Pension Fund. This will result, I believe, to the increase in the budget deficit of the Pension Fund, and raising the retirement age for citizens ...


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